The International Maritime Organization (IMO) has recognized the risk
In this study, to effectively respond to future international regulation, we introduce the case of leading countries related to management of hull fouling and also investigate environmental risk assessment techniques for in-water cleaning. Australia and New Zealand, the leading countries in hull fouling management, have established hull fouling regulations through biological and chemical risk assessment based on in-water cleaning scenarios. Most European countries without their government regulation have been found to perform in-water cleaning in accordance with the IMO’s hull fouling regulations.
In the Republic of Korea, there is no domestic law for hull fouling organisms, and only approximately 17 species of marine ecological disturbance organisms, are designated and managed under the Marine Ecosystem Law. Since in-water cleaning is accompanied by diffusion of alien species and release of chemical substances into aquatic environments, results from biological as well as chemical risk assessment are performed separately, and then evaluation of in-water cleaning permission is judged by combining these two results.
Biological risk assessment created 40 codes of in-water cleaning scenarios, and calculated Risk Priority Number (RPN) scores based on key factors that affect intrusion of alien species during in-water cleaning. Chemical risk assessment was performed using the MAMPEC (Marine Antifoulant Model to Predict Environmental Concentrations), to determine PEC and PNEC values based on copper concentration released during in-water cleaning.
Finally, if the PEC/PNEC ratio is >1, it means that chemical risk is high. Based on the assumption that the R/V EARDO ship performs in-water cleaning at Busan’s Gamcheon Port, biological risk was estimated to be low due to the RPN value was <10,000, but the PEC/PNEC ratio was higher than 1, it was evaluated as impossible for in-water cleaning.
Therefore, it will be necessary for the Republic of Korea to develop the in-water cleaning technology by referring to the case of leading countries and to establish domestic law of ship’s hull fouling management, suitable for domestic harbors.